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Can Rabbits Eat Alfalfa?

Can rabbits eat alfalfa hay? As we all know, hay is the most essential food for a rabbit’s diet.

Alfalfa is widely cultivated as fodder for livestock. It’s rich in various nutrients and often included in animal feeds, including those formulated for rabbits. The leaves, sprouts, and seeds are edible and can be processed into pellets or meals. Its nutrient-dense profile may seem ideal for our bunnies, but is it suitable for regular consumption?

In this article, we will let you know if rabbits can eat alfalfa, its role in a bunny’s diet, potential risks, alternatives, and much more.

Can Rabbits Eat Alfalfa?

Yes, rabbits can eat alfalfa.

Alfalfa is a commonly recommended food for rabbits, but they are more suitable for young, pregnant, or nursing rabbits due to its high protein content.

It is rich in protein, fiber, and other minerals such as calcium and should not be fed to bunnies regularly.

While protein is essential for growth, repair, and overall health, and calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth, too much of these nutrients can cause health issues in rabbits, particularly adults.

Role of Alfalfa in a Rabbit’s Diet

Rabbits have unique dietary needs, and alfalfa is essential under certain circumstances due to its nutrient-rich profile.

Although not primary for adult rabbits, alfalfa’s high protein and calcium content can be a beneficial supplement for different stages and conditions in a rabbit’s life.

1. Alfalfa for Young Rabbits

Young rabbits, also known as kits, are in a critical growth phase, which calls for increased nutrients, especially protein and calcium.

During the first six to seven months of life, kits require a diet that promotes rapid growth, bone development, and fur health, all of which are supported by the nutrient-dense profile of alfalfa.

While rabbit pellets on the market contain alfalfa, fresh alfalfa can also be an excellent supplemental food during this stage.

This plant’s soft, succulent nature also makes it appealing to kits, encouraging them to eat more.

2. Alfalfa for Underweight or Pregnant Rabbits

Rabbits who are underweight or recovering from illness often require additional nutrients to help them regain their health.

The high protein content in alfalfa aids in muscle recovery and weight gain, making it an ideal supplement in such cases.

Similarly, pregnant or nursing rabbits have increased nutrient needs to support the growth of their babies and milk production.

The additional protein, calcium, and vitamins found in alfalfa can be beneficial during these stages.

However, you should balance this with other diet components and watch the rabbit’s health closely to prevent complications from nutrient excess.

3. Alfalfa as a Treat

For healthy adult rabbits, alfalfa isn’t a necessary part of their diet, and its frequent consumption can lead to health issues.

However, alfalfa can be used as an occasional treat due to its palatable taste.

This is a great way to add variety to your rabbit’s diet and provide mental stimulation.

4. Alfalfa in Pellets

Many rabbit pellets on the market include alfalfa because of its nutrient content.

However, these pellets should be given as part of a balanced diet, ensuring your rabbit gets plenty of low-calcium, high-fiber grass hay and fresh vegetables.

Potential Risks of Overfeeding Alfalfa to Rabbits

Alfalfa offers substantial benefits in certain scenarios, but it’s essential to understand that it can also pose potential risks when overfed to rabbits.

Here, we explore these risks in detail to help you make informed decisions about incorporating alfalfa into your pet’s diet.

1. Risk of Obesity

Alfalfa’s high protein content can be a double-edged sword.

While it’s beneficial for young, underweight, or pregnant rabbits, excessive protein can lead to obesity in healthy adult rabbits, particularly those that aren’t very active.

Overweight rabbits are at risk of numerous health issues, such as heart disease, liver disease, and arthritis.

Also, rabbits with excess weight can suffer from ‘Flystrike,’ where flies lay eggs in the skin folds, causing significant distress and requiring urgent veterinary care.

Obesity also makes it challenging for rabbits to clean themselves, leading to unsanitary conditions and potential infections.

2. Risk of Urinary Problems

Another concern with alfalfa is its high calcium content.

Rabbits require calcium for strong bones and teeth, but they differ from many other animals in how they handle this mineral.

Rabbits absorb all the calcium they ingest, excreting excess through their urine.

Overfeeding alfalfa, thus excessively high calcium intake, can lead to urinary problems such as bladder stones or sludge, in which the urine becomes thick with calcium deposits.

These urinary problems can be painful. In severe cases, surgery may be needed to remove bladder stones.

3. Risk of Digestive Issues

Alfalfa is a type of hay, but it doesn’t have the same high fiber and low protein balance as grass hays.

Fiber is crucial in a rabbit’s diet to maintain healthy gut motility.

A diet too high in protein and too low in fiber can lead to digestive issues such as gastrointestinal stasis, a  condition where the gut slows down or stops moving.

4. Risk of Developing Selective Feeding Habits

Alfalfa’s rich taste can lead to selective feeding habits where rabbits may start refusing other hays and essential foods in favor of alfalfa.

This selective feeding can lead to an imbalanced diet, potentially causing nutrient deficiencies and contributing to dental problems.

Rabbits need to chew on high-fiber hays to help wear down their teeth, which continuously grow throughout their life.

Alternatives to Alfalfa for Rabbits

While alfalfa can be beneficial in specific scenarios in a rabbit’s life, remember that other food options are often more suitable for adult rabbits’ daily diet.

Let’s delve into some of the best alternatives to alfalfa for rabbits, offering them balanced nutrition without the risks associated with overconsumption of alfalfa.

1. Grass Hays

First and foremost, grass hays are the cornerstone of a rabbit’s diet.

They’re high in fiber, vital for maintaining a healthy digestive system, and low in calories and calcium, making them suitable for unlimited feeding.

Timothy hay, orchard grass, and meadow hay are excellent choices.

Each type of grass hay offers slightly different textures and tastes, offering some dietary variety for your rabbit.

2. Vegetables

Fresh, leafy green vegetables should constitute a significant portion of your rabbit’s daily food intake.

They’re high in water content, offering hydration, and packed with essential vitamins and minerals.

Rabbit-friendly vegetables include bok choy, romaine lettuce, carrot tops, bell peppers, and cucumber.

A mix of different vegetables can help ensure your rabbit gets a range of nutrients.

3. Rabbit Pellets

Rabbit pellets are a concentrated source of nutrients and can form part of a balanced diet for rabbits.

Alfalfa-based pellets can be suitable for young or underweight rabbits, but adult rabbits often benefit more from timothy hay-based pellets due to the lower protein and calcium content.

However, it’s important to note that pellets should not replace hay in your rabbit’s diet.

They should be fed in limited quantities (typically 1/4 cup per 5 pounds of body weight per day) as overreliance on pellets can lead to obesity and other health issues.

4. Fruits

Fruits can be offered as a treat in small quantities due to their high sugar content. They provide some dietary variation and can be used for bonding or training.

Some rabbit-friendly fruits include apples (without seeds), pears, peaches, and berries.

5. Fresh Herbs

In addition to vegetables, fresh herbs can be an excellent addition to a rabbit’s diet.

They provide different flavors and textures; herbs like parsley, dill, and cilantro contain nutrients.


Below are some of the frequently asked questions.

How Much Alfalfa Can I Feed My Rabbit?

The quantity of alfalfa that you can feed your rabbit depends on age and health status.

For young rabbits under six months, alfalfa can be given freely as it’s high in calcium, protein, and calories necessary for their growth and development.

For adult rabbits, alfalfa should only be given as a treat due to its high calcium and protein content, which could lead to urinary and kidney issues if consumed in excess.

Can Rabbit Eat Alfalfa Hay Every Day?

Young rabbits can eat alfalfa hay daily as it’s an integral part of their diet.

However, for adult rabbits, alfalfa hay should not be the main part of their diet and should only be given as an occasional treat.

The primary hay for adult rabbits should be grass hay, like timothy or orchard grass.

What Age Do Rabbits Need Alfalfa?

Rabbits need alfalfa when they are young, usually under six months.

Once they reach six months, their diet should transition to primarily grass hay, which has a lower calcium and protein content, suitable for adult rabbits.

Does Alfalfa Hay Make Rabbits Gain Weight?

Yes, alfalfa hay can make rabbits gain weight if fed in excess.

This is because it’s higher in calories compared to grass hays.

While this benefits young rabbits, it can lead to weight gain and obesity in adult rabbits if it forms a large part of their diet.


While rabbits can eat alfalfa, it’s not an ideal primary diet, particularly for healthy adults.

Alfalfa’s high protein and calcium content make it more suited to young or underweight rabbits that require a nutrient boost.

For most rabbits, a diet consisting primarily of grass hay, supplemented with vegetables, a small amount of fruit, and pellets will provide balanced nutrition.

We hope this article helped you know if rabbits can eat alfalfa. If you have any other questions, comment below, and we will answer them.

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